Sponsorship and Funding/Financial Disclosure

The Acknowledgments section is an appropriate place to recognize co-workers, indicate funding sources, and disclose information about affiliations and potential conflicts of interest (for example, commercial affiliations, patent-licensing arrangements). Authors must state all their sources of funding and any other financial and personal relationships that might bias their work. If the research reported in the manuscript has received partial or complete funding from commercial sponsors, the authors must also include a statement to that effect. The Editors reserve the right not to consider a manuscript if a sponsor has asserted control over the authors’ right to publish their research results. Therefore, if the authors have a potential financial or personal conflict of interest, they must submit the Conflict of Interest form.


Abbreviations should appear in parentheses immediately after first appearance. Use the abbreviations thereafter in the text.

Unit of Measurement

The following abbreviations should be used: L, mL, dL, mL, kg, g, mg, μg, ng, pg, m, cm, μm, mm, nm, M (molar), mM (millimolar), Gy, ℃, mon, hr, min, sec, msec, etc.

Gene Names

Please mark all gene names in italics. Only the gene names should be written in italics, to distinguish them from gene products, gene segments, clusters, families, complexes, or groups. Authors should only use the official gene name as assigned by the respective gene nomenclature committee.


References are listed in a separate reference section immediately following the text. All references must be verified by the corresponding author who submits the manuscript to CJEO. Follow the style of the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” for reference format and Index Medicus for standard journal abbreviations (please see examples below). Number references sequentially in the order cited in the text; do not alphabetize. A reference cited only in a table or figure is numbered in the sequence established by the first mention in the text of the table or figure containing the reference.

Reference to a personal communication or to a manuscript categorized as in preparation or submitted for publication is discouraged. However, if such a reference is essential and refers to a written communication, the source is cited parenthetically in the text (not in the reference section) with the comment “unpublished data” or “personal communication.” Written permission from the source that is cited must be sent to the Editorial Office. Reference to a manuscript accepted but not yet published is listed in the reference section as “in press.” “In press” references must be updated by the authors as soon as publication data is available. Provide names of all authors in a reference when there are three or fewer; if there are four or more authors, list the first three, followed by “et al.” Journal references shall include the specified information listed in the following order: authors, article title and subtitle, journal abbreviation, volume number in Arabic numerals, inclusive pages.

Book references are listed as follows: authors, title, edition (if other than the first), volume (if more than one), city, publisher, pages, and year.

When referencing a book chapter, the order changes as follows: authors of the chapter, title of the chapter, “In :” editors/authors of the book, title of the book, edition (if there are more than one), volume (if there are more than one), city, publisher, inclusive pages of the chapter, and year.


Authors should upload high-quality graphic data for figures. For use in the peer review process, the Editorial office can use PDF, DOC, PPT, TIF, and JPG files. Figures may be submitted in these formats. However, the preferred format is PPT, TIF, or JPG files, which would be required when the manuscript is accepted.

Supplementary Digital Material

Material that is not suitable for print publication such as very long tables, database information, etc. can be published online as electronic supplementary material. The final decision to do so, however, lies with the Editors. Please submit camera-ready files for this material as it will not be edited or altered in any way by the publisher.

Clinical Trials

As described in the ICMJE’s policy on trial registration, all clinical trials must be registered with a public trials registry before the time of first patient enrolment. ICMJE defines clinical trials as any research project that prospectively assigns people or a group of people to an intervention, with or without concurrent comparison or control groups, to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a health-related intervention and a health outcome. Health-related interventions includes but not limited to those used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome; examples include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, educational programs, dietary interventions, quality improvement interventions, and process-of-care changes.

Authors are required to register all clinical trials with databases managed by a non-profit organization, openly accessible to the public free of charge, have a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data, and are electronically searchable. The registration must be made with the registries listed at

For more details, please go to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) site at

Reporting Guidelines

Authors are encouraged to follow published standard reporting guidelines for the study discipline.

CONSORT for randomized clinical trials (
CARE for case reports (
STROBE for observational studies (
PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (
STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy (

Please access to find the guideline appropriate for your study.


Author offprints are available at the cost of 400 Yuan per colour page and 300 Yuan per black and white page.

Human and Animal Testing

All human or animal studies should be approved or exempted by the appropriate institutional human and/or animal subject review committee, or if no formal ethics committee is available, are in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration as revised in 2013. This approval or exemption should be stated in the Methods section of the article.

When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether institutional and national standards for the care and use of laboratory animals are followed. Further guidance on animal research ethics is available from the International Association of Veterinary Editors’ Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare.

Patient Consent

All authors must declare that, where relevant, patient consent has been obtained (or the consent of their parent or guardian in the case of children under 16) and that all reasonable steps have been taken to maintain patient confidentiality, including illustrations, which should be anonymized as far as possible.