Research progress of autoimmune retinopathy

Authors: Wang Zongyi,  Li Mengyang,  Qu Jinfeng
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn115989-20190525-00232
Published 2022-09-10
Cite asChin J Exp Ophthalmol, 2022, 40(9): 880-886.

Abstract                                       [View PDF] [Read Full Text]

Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a rare immune retinopathy characterized by decreased visual acuity, scotoma, visual field defect, and photoreceptor dysfunction.AIR is divided into paraneoplastic AIR (pAIR) and non-neoplastic AIR (npAIR). pAIR is further divided into cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), and bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP). Circulating anti-retinal antibodies often exist in peripheral blood of patients with various types of AIR, accompanied by electroretinogram abnormalities, but no significant abnormality in fundus examination (except BDUMP). A variety of anti-retinal antibodies such as anti-recoverin protein antibody and anti-α-enolase antibody have been identified in the serum of AIR patients.However, anti-retinal antibodies can also be negative in some AIR patients’ serum.At present, the diagnostic criteria and laboratory examination criteria for AIR are not uniform, and there are large differences in clinical examination performance among patients, which may lead to misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.Therefore, a thorough examination is required to rule out other possible causes before making a speculative diagnosis.So far, the treatments for different types of AIR are not unified.Most clinicians choose a combination of various immunomodulatory therapies, including systemic or topical application of corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, and the use of antimetabolites or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.The clinical characteristics of different AIR types, serum anti-retinal autoantibodies detection, differential diagnosis and treatment prognosis of AIR were reviewed in this article to improve the understanding of clinicians and researchers toward the disease, and to achieve early diagnosis and early treatment of AIR.

Key words:

Paraneoplastic syndromes, ocular; Nonneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy; Cancer-associated retinopathy; Antiretinal antibody

Contributor Information

Wang Zongyi

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People’s Hospital, Eye Diseases and Optometry Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Therapy of Retinal and Choroid Diseases, College of Optometry, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100044, China

Li Mengyang

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People’s Hospital, Eye Diseases and Optometry Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Therapy of Retinal and Choroid Diseases, College of Optometry, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100044, China

Qu Jinfeng

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People’s Hospital, Eye Diseases and Optometry Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Therapy of Retinal and Choroid Diseases, College of Optometry, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100044, China

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