Authors: Cheng Zifang, Wang Yusheng, Wang Haiyan, Sun Dongjie, Zhu Jinting, Li Manhong
Cite as Chin J Exp Ophthalmol, 2021,39(01): 20-26.
To evaluate the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) and investigate the recurrence factors.
In this case-control study, 40 eyes of 38 patients with wAMD treated by anti-VEGF therapy in Xijing Hospital from October 2015 to April 2017 were included.Ranibizumab or conbercept was consecutively intravitreally injected monthly under 3+ pro re nata (PRN) regimen.All included patients were followed-up at least 12 months.The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was expressed in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) units.Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to observe the morphologic characteristics of macula and measure the central retina thickness (CRT). Patients were divided into recurrence and recurrence-free group based on whether recurrence occurred during follow-up.Potential associated factors with recurrence after treatment were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Meanwhile, the morphological and functional response were identified at 1 month after loading phase as well as at last follow-up visit.This study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai General Hospital (No.2016KY243) and written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to receiving injection.
All the operative eyes showed retinal effusion absorption at least once, and 21 (52.5%) eyes had relapse during follow-up.The patients with lower BCVA (LogMAR) value at the first absorption time had higher risk of recurrence (OR=16.7, 95%CI=1.22-100, P<0.05). The eyes in the recurrence group received more times of treatment than eyes in the recurrence-free group (5.8±2.3 vs 3.5±1.4, t=3.64, P<0.05). However, there was no significance between the two groups in BCVA change before and after treatment (t=-1.52, P>0.05). In the recurrence group, the BCVA (LogMAR) and CRT at last visit were 0.73±0.34 and (187.2±81.7)μm respectively, while were significantly improved in comparison with 0.81±0.37 and (234.2±74.5)μm at the relapse time (t=2.14, 2.62; both at P<0.05). There were 87.5% (35/40) eyes showed good morphological responses at 1 month after the loading phase while 12.5% (5/40) eyes presented poor morphological responses, the retinal effusion was absorbed after additional (3.2±2.2) times of injections.The BCVA of eyes with a good morphological response at 1 month following loading phase was better than that at the first retinal effusion absorption time (t=-2.23, P<0.05). Average CRT at last visit was significantly decreased in comparison with the baseline CRT (Z=-4.62, P<0.01).
For wet AMD patients, the anti-VEGF treatment is safe and effective in the short term, while there is still a high rate of recurrence.More attention should be paid to eyes with better vision at the first time of retinal effusion absorption which may have more chance to experience recurrence.Patients need long-term follow-up after treatment to prevent recurrence.In addition, the complete loading treatment is needed for patients who have a good morphological response after the first retinal effusion absorbed.