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Conjunctival epithelial stem cells are the common progenitor cells of both conjunctival epithelial cells and goblet cells, having the ability of self-renewal proliferation and differentiation. They play a central role in maintaining the homeostasis of ocular surface and damage repair. With the in-depth study of conjunctival epithelial stem cells, we can further understand their effective mechanism in regulating ocular surface homeostasis. Furthermore, conjunctival epithelial stem cells are good candidates as seed cells for reconstructing conjunctiva in tissue engineering. The research progress in conjunctival epithelial stem cells, such as their concept, features, location, identification, culture method in vitro, differentiation and clinical application were reviewed.