Risk factors for simple congenital ptosis

Authors: Shao Ji,  Wang Yijie,  Lou Lixia,  Xu Yufeng,  Ye Juan
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn115989-20220502-00190
Published 2023-03-10
Cite as Chin J Exp Ophthalmol, 2023, 41(3): 266-270.

Abstract                               [Download PDF]  [Read Full Text]

Objective

To identify the risk factors for simple congenital ptosis.

Methods

A case-control study was performed.A total of 106 children diagnosed with simple congenital ptosis at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from October 2018 to January 2021 were recruited as a case group, and 106 sex-matched children without congenital abnormalities were enrolled as a control group at the same period.Ophthalmic examinations, including interpalpebral fissure height and margin reex distance 1, were performed on all participants.A questionnaire survey was administered to their mothers.The questionnaire included demographic information, prenatal maternal diseases, medical treatments and environmental exposures during pregnancy.Univariate analysis was used to compare the differences in variables between the case and control groups.Variables with P<0.20 were retained for multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors for simple congenital ptosis.The goodness of fit of the model was evaluated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and collinearity was assessed by the variance inflation factor (VIF). This study adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki.The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine (No.2019-136). The method and purpose of the study were fully explained to the children’s guardians and written informed consent was obtained.

Results

Comparisons of gestational age <37 weeks, birth order ≥2, maternal age, antibiotic use in the first trimester, paternal smoking ≥half a pack per day, and prenatal maternal passive smoking between the two groups were all with P<0.20.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age <37 weeks (odds ratio [OR]=4.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-16.85), paternal smoking ≥half a pack per day (OR=2.28; 95% CI: 1.22-4.28) and prenatal maternal passive smoking (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 1.16-8.41) were risk factors for simple congenital ptosis.No significant collinearity was found among these identified factors (all VIF<5).

Conclusions

Preterm birth, paternal smoking, and prenatal maternal passive smoking are risk factors for simple congenital ptosis.

Key words:

Congenital ptosis; Risk factors; Preterm birth; Smoking

Contributor Information

Shao Ji

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China

Wang Yijie

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China

Lou Lixia

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China

Xu Yufeng

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China

Ye Juan

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China

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