Advance in mechanism and management study of vernal keratoconjunctivitis

Authors: Li Suxia,  Shi Weiyun
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn115989-20220413-00159
Published 2022-05-10
Cite asChin J Exp Ophthalmol, 2022, 40(5): 481-486.

Abstract

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic, bilateral allergic conjunctivitis common in school children.VKC is classified into palpebral-conjunctival type, limbal type and mixed type primarily based on clinical findings.Most allergic conjunctivitis does not impair vision, however, VKC probably causes visual impairment because of the involvement of cornea besides conjunctiva.Corneal lesions of VKC would lead to amblyopia in younger children.The term “vernal” in VKC indicates a seasonal onset, but 20%-60% patients are found onset throughout the year.In addition, misdiagnosis and improper treatment often lead to persistence or recurrence of VKC and other complications.Previous study has suggested that VKC is a hypersensitivity disease involved both type I and type IV, however, recent researchers found that immune factor, genetic factor and endocrine factor show close associations with the pathogenesis of VKC.The diagnosis of VKC depends on the clinical symptoms, pathological findings, infiltration of dendritic cells by laser scanning confocal microscopy and allergen tests.The treatment of VKC mainly focuses on symptom relief.In addition to anti-allergy, anti-inflammation and artificial tears, immunosuppressor has become a new trend.The pathogenesis and treatment progress of VKC are reviewed.

Key words:

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis; Pathogenesis; Therapy

Contributor Information

Li Suxia

Eye Institute of Shandong First Medical University, Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University (Shandong Eye Hospital) State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, School of Ophthalmology, Shandong First Medical University, Jinan 250021, China

Shi Weiyun

Eye Institute of Shandong First Medical University, Eye Hospital of Shandong First Medical University (Shandong Eye Hospital) State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, School of Ophthalmology, Shandong First Medical University, Jinan 250021, China

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