Advances in the study of exosomes in glaucoma diagnosis and treatment

Authors: Feng Xinting,  Zhang Xu
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn115989-20220429-00186
Published 2023-02-10
Cite as Chin J Exp Ophthalmol, 2023, 41(2): 173-177.

Abstract                               [Download PDF] [Read Full Text]

Exosomes are small vesicles with nanoscale lipid bilayer structures, which are secreted by various cells and are widely present in biological fluids, with complex contents and multiple biological functions.Exosomes play an important role in the development of glaucoma.Exosomes in the eye are involved in trabecular meshwork cell regulation by transporting glaucoma-associated proteins, regulating the Wnt signaling pathway, and affecting extracellular matrix turnover, thereby affecting the atrial circulation.Microglial exosomes mediate retinal neuroinflammation and related inflammatory signaling pathways.In addition, the stable presence of exosomes in intraocular fluid, in which differentially expressed proteins, RNA and other contents give exosomes potential as glaucoma biomarkers.In the treatment of glaucoma, stem cell-derived exosomes inhibit glial cell activation and neuroinflammation, reduce the loss of retinal ganglion cells, and act as neuroprotective agents.Exosomes can cross the blood-retinal barrier, deliver neurotrophic factors, drugs or other therapeutic molecules to target cells, regulate the function of target cells, and provide a new therapeutic tool for glaucomatous optic nerve degeneration.This paper summarized the research progress in the field of glaucoma and exosomes at home and abroad, and reviewed the role of exosomes and related mechanisms in the development, diagnosis, and treatment of glaucoma, expecting to provide new ideas for the early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma.

Key words:

Exosomes; Glaucoma; Stem cells; Cell communication; Neuroprotection

Contributor Information

Feng Xinting

Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang University School of Ophthalmology &

Optometry, Nanchang 330006, China

Zhang Xu

Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang University School of Ophthalmology &

Optometry, Nanchang 330006, China

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