An interpretation of the new version of Refractive Errors Preferred Practice Pattern®

Authors: Tong Haohai,  Liu Hu
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn115989-20230804-00056
Published 2024-04-10
Cite as Chin J Exp Ophthalmol, 2024, 42(4): 367-371.

Abstract                            Download PDF】 【Read Full Text

In September 2022, the American Academy of Ophthalmology released the latest version of Refractive Errors Preferred Practice Pattern® (PPP). It provides authoritative guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of refractive errors based on the best evidence-based medical updates.The new version of Refractive Errors PPP continues the rigorous, comprehensive and detailed features of the 2017 version.Updates have been made to the definition, epidemiology, classification, and diagnosis and correction of refractive errors.For example, the new version of Refractive Errors PPP defines high refractive errors as myopia≥-6.0 D, hyperopia≥+ 3.0 D, astigmatism≥-3.0 D, adds content on myopia prevention and control, recommends outdoor activities for at least 2 hours per day, selects appropriate optical prevention and control methods, and considers the use of low-concentration atropine eye drops to delay the onset and development of myopia.It enriched the evidence-based medical evidence that myopia is an interactive influence of genetic and environmental factors, and emphasized the future pandemic trend of high myopia, and the global public health significance of delaying the progression of myopia.In addition, the new version of Refractive Errors PPP emphasizes for the first time that myopia can cause irreversible visual impairment, suggesting that it is necessary to delay the onset time of myopia in children and slow the speed of myopia progression.This article introduces and interprets the main contents and updates of the new edition of the Refractive Errors PPP.

Key words:

Refractive errors; Diagnosis; Therapeutics; American Academy of Ophthalmology; Preferred Practice Pattern

Contributor Information

Tong Haohai

Eye Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, China

Liu Hu

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China

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