Antagonistic effect of SC79 on high glucose-induced apoptosis of RPE cells and its regulatory mechanism on AKT-XIAP signaling pathway

Authors: Zheng Lei,  Ma Dahui,  Chen Miaohong,  Zhang Guoming
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn115989-20210710-00405
Published 2023-03-10
Cite as Chin J Exp Ophthalmol, 2023, 41(3): 226-232.

Abstract                               [Download PDF]  [Read Full Text]

Objective

To investigate the antagonistic effect and potential mechanism of specific AKT activator SC79 on the apoptosis of human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE)-19 cells induced by high glucose in vitro.

Methods

The ARPE-19 cells were cultured in high glucose medium (containing 30 mmol/L glucose) plus 5, 10 or 20 μg/ml SC79, respectively.After 6-, 12- and 24-hour culture, the optimal experimental concentration and timing were determined according to cell proliferation rate.Then ARPE-19 cells were divided into four groups, normal control group cultured in normal medium containing 5.6 mmol/L glucose for 48 hours, mannitol group cultured in medium containing 5.6 mmol/L glucose and 24.4 mmol/L mannitol for 48 hours, high glucose group cultured in high glucose medium for 48 hours, and high glucose+ SC79 group cultured in normal medium containing 10 μg/ml SC79 for 12 hours plus in high glucose medium for 36 hours.The proliferation rate of APRE-19 cells was detected by MTS assay.The apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry.The relative expression levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), caspase-9, caspase-3 and its active fragments (active-caspase-3) were assayed by Western blot.The ARPE-19 cells were divided into Neg-shRNA group, AKT shRNA group and blank control group and were treated with the corresponding transfection complex and serum-free medium.The AKT mRNA expression was detected by real-time PCR.The transfected ARPE-19 cells were divided into Neg-shRNA+ SC79 group and AKT shRNA+ SC79 group and were cultured according to the culturing method of high-glucose+ SC79 group.The apoptosis rate of the two groups was tested by flow cytometry.

Results

Among different concentrations of SC79 and treatment times, the proliferation rate of cells treated with 10 μg/ml SC79 for 12 hours was the highest.The proliferation rate of ARPE-19 cells in high-glucose group was significantly lower than that in normal control group, mannitol group and high-glucose+ SC79 group, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.01). The apoptosis rate of cells in the high-glucose group was (52.27±3.21)%, which was significantly higher than (3.90±0.71)% in normal control group and (20.70±3.62)% in high-glucose+ SC79 group (both at P<0.01). The relative expression levels of p-Akt, XIAP, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were significantly lower and the relative expression level of active-caspase-3 was significantly higher in high glucose group than those in normal control group and high-glucose+ SC79 group (all at P<0.05). The relative expression level of AKT mRNA in normal control group, Neg-shRNA group and AKT shRNA group was 0.60±0.07, 0.59±0.03 and 0.11±0.10, respectively, showing a statistically significant difference among the groups (F=30.44, P<0.01). The apoptosis rate of cells in the AKT shRNA+ SC79 group was significantly higher than that in high-glucose+ SC79 group and Neg-shRNA+ SC79 group (both at P<0.001).

Conclusions

SC79 can partially antagonize the apoptosis of ARPE-19 cells induced by high glucose, which is related to the activation of AKT/XIAP pathway and the inhibition of the caspase family.

Key words:

High glucose; Retinal pigment epithelial cell; SC79; Apoptosis

Contributor Information

Zheng Lei

Affiliated Shenzhen Eye Hospital of Jinan University, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen 518040, China

Ma Dahui

Affiliated Shenzhen Eye Hospital of Jinan University, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen 518040, China

Chen Miaohong

Affiliated Shenzhen Eye Hospital of Jinan University, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen 518040, China

Zhang Guoming

Affiliated Shenzhen Eye Hospital of Jinan University, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen 518040, China

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