Inhibitory effects of 1% atropine on form deprivation-induced myopia development in guinea pigs and its mechanism

Authors: Ji Xiaowen,  Gong Boteng,  Zhu Ying,  Lu Daqian,  Liu Lin,  Du Bei,  Liu Xun,  Wei Ruihua
DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn115989-20211026-00584
Published 2023-04-10
Cite as Chin J Exp Ophthalmol, 2023, 41(4): 303-311.

Abstract                              [Download PDF] [Read Full Text]

Objective

To observe the prevention and control effect of 1% atropine on the progression of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in guinea pigs and the potential biological mechanism.

Methods

Sixty-nine 3-week-old tricolor guinea pigs with normal refraction were randomly divided into a normal control group (n=19), a FDM group (n=19), a FDM+ atropine group (n=19), and an atropine group (n=12). No intervention was given to guinea pigs in normal control group.The FDM model was established by covering the right eye of guinea pigs with a semitransparent latex facemask for 4 weeks in FDM and FDM+ atropine groups.For the FDM+ atropine group, 1% atropine gel was topically administered to the form-deprived right eyes once a day for 4 weeks.For the atropine group, the right eye was treated with 1% atropine gel once a day for 4 weeks.Refraction and axial length of guinea pigs were measured by retinoscopy and ophthalmic A-scan ultrasonography respectively at baseline, experiment week 2 and week 4.In experiment week 4, eyeballs were enucleated to make sections via the paraffin wax processing procedure, and the microstructural and ultrastructural changes of the sclera were observed under the light microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively.The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the differentially expressed proteins.Use and care of the animals complied with the Regulation for the Administration of Affairs Concerning Experiment Animals by State Science and Technology Commission.The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Tianjin Medical University (No.TJYY2020111028).

Results

There were statistically significant differences in the diopter of guinea pigs at different time points among the four groups (Fgroup=138.892, P<0.001; Ftime=167.270, P<0.001). Compared with normal control group, the diopter of guinea pigs in FDM group at experiment weeks 2 and 4, and FDM+ atropine group at experiment week 4 developed toward myopia, showing statistically significant differences (all at P<0.001). Compared with FDM group, the diopter of guinea pigs in FDM+ atropine group at experiment weeks 2 and 4 developed toward hyperopia, showing statistically significant differences (both at P<0.001). There were statistically significant differences in the axial length of guinea pigs at different time points among the four groups (Fgroup=32.346, P<0.001; Ftime=353.797, P<0.001). The axial lengths of FDM group at experiment weeks 2 and 4 and FDM+ atropine group at experiment week 4 were longer than those of normal control group, and the axial lengths in FDM+ atropine group at experiment weeks 2 and 4 were shorter than those in FDM group, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.001). The collagenous fibers of posterior sclera of guinea pigs were loose and disordered in FDM group, and were regular in FDM+ atropine group.The posterior scleral thickness of normal control group, FDM group, FDM+ atropine group and atropine group was (141.74±16.98), (101.46±9.15), (112.74±6.24) and (134.30±18.19) μm, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (F=6.709, P=0.005). The posterior sclera was significantly thinner in FDM group than in normal control group and FDM+ atropine group (both at P<0.05). The diameter of posterior scleral collagen fiber gradually increased from inside to outside in normal control group, FDM+ atropine group and atropine group, and the diameters of the inner, middle and outer posterior scleral collagen fibers were smaller in FDM group than in normal control group.Proteomic analysis revealed 85 differentially expressed proteins (fold change>1.30) between FDM group and normal control group, FDM+ atropine group and FDM group, of which 38 were up-regulated and 47 were down-regulated after atropine treatment.Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that biological processes mainly involved were biological regulation, cell process, localization and metabolic process.Molecular function mainly involved were binding, catalytic activity, molecular function regulator, structural molecule activity and transporter activity.Cell components mainly involved were in cellular anatomical entity, intracellular and protein-containing complex.

Conclusions

Atropine can increase the diameter of scleral collagen fibers in guinea pigs of FDM model, improve the arrangement of scleral collagen fiber, inhibit scleral thinning.The mechanism of atropine to control myopia progression is closely related to the tight junction between scleral cells, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix remodeling.

Key words:

Atropine; Refraction, ocular; Myopia; Form deprivation; Sclera; Histomorphology; Proteomics; Models, animal

Contributor Information

Ji Xiaowen

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China

Gong Boteng

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China

Zhu Ying

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China

Lu Daqian

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China

Liu Lin

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China

Du Bei

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China

Liu Xun

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China

Wei Ruihua

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China

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